Rio de Janeiro: ABNT (NBR ) (In Portuguese) 7. Brazilian Association of extract from solid residues. Rio de Janeiro: ABNT (NBR ). Brazilian Association of Technical Norms, in ABNT NBR Procedure for obtention leaching extract of solid wastes (Rio de Janeiro, ), p. 16 8. ABNT NBR , Solid Waste: Classification, Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ABNT NBR , Leaching of.
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The standard NBR procedure was performed for 7 different monitors. It is a flux waste the silica base when sintered forms a liquid phase, decreases the porosity of the material, and causing a sintering faster or at a lower temperature.
The results from the AAS obtained from the samples that had undergone the thermal process are displayed in Table 6. Although the sector has a great environmental degrading potential due to mineral extraction by the wbnt consumption of clay. Natural clay substitution by calamine processing wastes to manufacture fired bricks. Services on Demand Journal.
The abntt construction sector, particularly in the manufacture of inputs, is constantly increasing with great potential impact. The waste was classified based ant the American methodology SW B, 29 and the Brazilian technical references: Services on Demand Journal.
September 26, ; Accepted: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially.
How to cite this article. Therefore, recycling or re-use within the same process can be a reasonable way of preserving the environment. Waste of electric and electronic equipment WEEE includes not only the equipment itself, but also all the components, subassemblies and consumables which are part of the product at the time of discarding European Union, The study was to analyze the technical feasibility of the incorporation of vitreous waste, from enamel decanters, into a heavy clay mass for fired clay ceramic structural block production.
Iron oxide is known to favor reddish tones in the burned parts and by the 10005 effect in the ceramics. The monitors were weighed and their parts were separated and sorted into four categories: It can be observed that the waste presents significant levels of alkaline earth metals, mainly calcium oxide this also contributes to assist the sintering of the ceramic mass in certain temperatures. Journal of Thermal Analysisv.
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The pressure inside the tube for samples E and F was set at 1. Sample F displayed the best results as it was able to reduce the lead in the glass to a minimum in comparison to the other 5 samples.
Additions from enamel waste contributed to the increase of physical properties such as burning retraction, mechanical resistance to bending, and decreased water absorption and loss of ignition.
The results show all samples are hazardous according to local environmental law NBR due to lead leaching. Ukwatta A, Mohajerani A. Table 4 presents the results of the Raw Residue of the STD and enamel waste, showing that the residue used has a smaller particle size than the standard mass, directly aiding in the packaging factor, contributing to a better compaction.
Segundo van Geen et al. Currently produced ceramic coatings are generally composed of three distinct layers: The ceramic residue used in this work provided by a Brazilian company from Santa Catarina state from the process of washing and residues of enamels. The samples were placed inside alumina crucibles, which were then placed inside the furnace. Cathode ray tube monitors were collected for these experiments; their manufacturing year varied from to The clay mass was obtained from the mixture of four clays that was collected after complete homogenization and removal after the rolling process.
Thermal behavior in air of iron oxyhydroxides obtained from the method of homogeneous precipitation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Actav.
The NBR displays a list of known hazardous materials and their characteristics and can be related to the Code of Federal Regulations title 40, subtitle of the United States 40 C. Environmental Engineering Lead hazard evaluation for cathode ray tube monitors in Brazil. The next step was intended to evaluate whether the lead removal had been able to convert the CRT from a hazardous waste to a non-hazardous waste according to the Brazilian regulation. Geological assessment and utilization with drinking water treatment sludge in brick manufacture.
These devices became obsolete zbnt of emerging technologies such as LCD, LED and plasma; thus abt a huge stockpile of e-waste worldwide. This segment which mainly produces perforated bricks, solid bricks, slab components, hollow and structural blocks, tiles, shackles and rustic floors. As reported in several international publications, waste of CRT monitors represents an environmental threat and yet it has not been classified under Brazilian law. In order to open the vacuum sealed tubes, the monitors were placed behind a wooden shield and the metallic threads were removed using a set of pliers.
As the waste content increases it also increased retraction, because of the waste having considerable amounts of fluxing materials as shown in Table 2which aids in the fusion of the piece, causing the retraction.
How to cite this article. August 07, Published: In order to make sure the monitor samples used in this work had similar lead distribution to the ones from previous studies Table 1the three milled glass parts were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence XRF using an Axios Advanced PANalytical, Almelo, Netherlands. The funnel glasses from different CRT were all mixed together. Characterisation of fired—clay bricks incorporating biosolids and the effect of heating rate on properties of bricks.
ABNT – Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas
The possible redox reactions are as follows Veit et al. As stated by Okadaa material containing lead may scatter and result in oral intake of the dispersed lead by humans, which ultimately results in health problems.
It is clear that recycling waste of CRT is important not only for mitigating environmental issues, but also for 100005 the value of the waste Zhang et al.
BeforeCRT did wbnt use high voltage in the electron gun, and thus, did not need as much lead in the glass for shielding Webster, Constrution and Build Materials. The manufacture of red ceramics is able to absorb high amounts of solid residues from several segments, mainly due to the large volumes involved, allows greater tolerance in the composition of its mass.
The panel component is the heaviest part and it contains elements such as barium, strontium, and yttrium. Environmental profile of ceramic tiles and their potential for improvement.
Neck, funnel and panel parts Fig 3. Therefore, innovative approaches to the production of heavy clay ceramics that are less dependent on virgin sources are highly encouraged from the perspective of protecting natural resources and sustainable development.