Classification of. Retaining walls. • Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain concrete. • Cantilever retaining wall-RCC. (Inverted T and L). • Counterfort retaining wall- RCC. Types of reinforced concrete retaining walls are cantilever retaining walls and counterfort retaining walls. Functions and parts of these retaining walls. In this type of retaining wall, counterforts (cantilevers) are provided on the earth side between wall and footing to support the wall, which essentially spans as a.

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Provisions of retaining walls become necessary in the construction of hill roads, embankments, bridge abutment, basement in buildings, water reservoir, in preventive measures against soil erosion, in landscaping etc. However suitable value of toe projection can be obtained from the relationship. It is also assumed that the retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil by sufficient amount so that the soil expands and evokes full shearing resistance and attains state of plastic equilibrium.

The more the height of the wall, the closer should be the spacing of counterforts. In case the water table does not rise up to full height of retaining wall, this will result in a situation where the soil is partially submerged and partly dry. The brackets in this case are known as buttresses and by retajning of their location they are subjected to compressive forces.

Counterfort Retaining Walls When the height of the retaining wall to be provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical. Retaining walls are structures constructed counterfot the purpose of retaining earth or other materials like coal, ore, water etc.

To meet this requirement the resultant of the counterforrt of all vertical forces and the horizontal active pressure should cut the base of the wall within the middle third. The overturning moment is stabilized by the weight of wall and the weight of the soil above the heel slab the weight of soil over the toe is neglected.

When the height of the retaining wall to be provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical. The pressure thus developed is termed as soil earth pressure. By clicking accept or continuing to use cojnterfort site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

### Four Types of Concrete Retaining Walls – The Concrete Network

Probability, reliability and statistical methods in engineering de-sign. Showing of 32 references. Towards reliability-based design for geotechnical engineering Kok Kwang Phoon Let the intensity of surcharge load per unit area be w. How well do we know what we are doing? Let the backfill be moist or dry up to a depth h 1 below the top of wall and let the backfill below this depth i. This constant factor of safety may not be able to quantify the uncertainties associated with the random variables.

Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental…. Wall retaining submerged backfill: The pressure mainly depends upon the type of backfill material and the height of wall. Wall retaining partly submerged backfill: Structural Reliability Analysis and Design. Wall retaining backfill in slope. Wall with backfill levelled and subjected to uniform surcharge. Wall retaining submerged walk.

## How could counterforts in counterfort retaining wall assist in resisting earth pressure?

If counterfogt retaining wall is allowed to move towards the back fill, it will compress the soil and the pressure thus exerted is known as passive pressure. The horizontal component of all lateral pressures tends to slide the wall along its base.

Each of these components are designed as a retining. In this type of wall the base slab as well as the stem of the wall span horizontally as continuous slabs between vertical brackets known as counterforts as shown in Fig.

Topics Discussed in This Paper. Cantilever Retaining Walls The sliding tendency is resisted by the counterforr resistance between the base of the wall and the soil underneath. The pressure distribution is triangular. Due to buoyancy the weight of submerged soil will be less and its repose will also be much less. The maximum and minimum pressure are given by. Reliability analysis of cantilever retaining walls.

Design of One Way Slabs. Design of Isolated Column Footing.

### COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALLS

Besides loads due to retained material, the retaining wall may also wal, subjected to surcharged load due to automobile, rail road etc. The base width b of the retaining wall vary between 0.

Hence total lateral earth pressure at the base of wall is given by. The lateral pressure exerted by the submerged soil is considered to comprise of the following two components.