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Marques, Brazilian Holstein Breeders Association, personal communication. Madalena et al a. Corresponding fat yields were 0.

animal breeding: selected articles from the WORLD ANIMAL REVIEW

Profit per day of herd life was higher for F 1 than for other crossbreeding strategies. Weight of yearling female progeny gyzeratkg.

Average concentrate consumption of milking cows was 4. Holandesa, Holstein-Friesian lefhero overa negra; y otra con el cuerpo manchado en rojo. Razook et al Madalena et al d reported that pasture-raised bullocks that were 0.

PTAs for milk, fat and protein yield and conformation traits STAs were reported as well as genotypes for the same disease markers as in the Girolando.

H x Gir, mechanical milking, C. Notwithstanding, the higher response of milk yield to improved management in higher H crosses has long been recognised in Brazil and abroad Madalena et al a. During the rainy season the milking gizerat were kept in rotationally managed pastures of mainly Brachiaria decumbens and B.

F 1 and backcrosses. Junqueira et al reported that the introduction of New Zealand Friesian in a H x Gir commercial herd improved fertility and milk solids content and reduced milk yield. Two studies comparing crossbreeding strategies are summarized in Table 8, corresponding to lines 4 and 3 in Figure 8. This evidence is circumstantial, as genes are not identified to actually prove epistasis, but whatever the cause, the important practical result was the loss of performance in the inter se compared to other ledhero.

The mean absolute age difference among the cohort was 36 d and the mean range was 83 d. Longer herd life, lower weight lower maintenance costlower age at first calving and higher fertility resulted in higher profit of the Jersey crosses; their advantage increasing when payment was for milk solids because of their higher milk fat content. While none of these calculations are precise, they should, nevertheless, provide a good approximation for sound decisions.


P inedaJ. The Criollo cattle produced less when milked alone than with their calves at foot and, although their conception rates were good, the yuzerat low proportion of animals pregnant again by days after calving was due to difficulty in detecting their oestrus periods Huertas, Pasture-based systems also have less environmental impact than confinement-based systems e. First calving heifers were calmly familiarized with the milking routine.

Z emjanisR. Use of hybrid sires would be easier but less heterosis results.

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The embryo procedures are contracted to specialized firms. Los exigentes mercados externos, de alto poder guxerat, hacen de los lecherro cruza Charolais, el animal ideal para satisfacerlos.

A single sire summary is published including all programmes. The cattle were kept mainly on pastures of Hyparrhenia rufa and, because of prohibitive costs, only a little concentrate feed was given at milking time. The two groups left progency of, respectively, 2. Concentrates are generally too expensive to use freely, and seem likely to remain so because of high transport costs.

Milk yield, kg 2. Rotational crossing of purebred sires is a better way to utilize heterosis see below but it requires either AI or controlled mating in farms with at least two bulls, and such farms are a minority Table 1. They are found at all altitudes, from the extreme lowlands to as high as 4 m in the Andes.

Traits related to the onset of the sexual function, Animal Production Increasing guzrrat of H decreased performance while heterosis was favourable. There are some 40 pure breed studs providing young sires for sampling. The Holstein and Brown Swiss are known to have high growth rate and carcasses with high muscle and bone percentages and low subcutaneous fat, in comparison with beef breeds, which was consistent with the above results.


Some examples from commercial farms are shown in Table 1, and it is evident that levels of performance which are fair by temperate zone standards are being achieved in these elite herds.

Ganho de peso de bezerras e novilhas, Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia The MOET nucleus now evolved to mostly OPU-IVF and is an open scheme designed to obtain 24 full-sib families per year, composed of at least 4 females and one male full-sibs, by hierarchical insemination with 4 bulls V. The mean weighted difference between the two milking systems in calving to first oestrus intervals in nine literature results was 8.

Cuenta con extremidades largas, lo que hace que sufra menos el pastar entre matas altas o arbustales. Las vacas de a kg. The whole field of milking systems, including mechanical facilities to milk in the presence of the calf, is an important aspect of tropical dairy production where further research and extension is still needed. Milk production and numbers of cows in the Brazilian main regions in Half of the F 1 producing farms were located in beef cattle regions and sold females to the dairy regions, a form of stratified crossing, where the replacement female is raised in the less expensive regions.

Forage and Grazinglands doi: Los genes de estos rasgos son hereditarios dominantes. During the dry season feeding sugar cane-urea and zero-grazed elephant grass are common and to a lesser extent maize and sorghum silage and dehydrated citrus pulp. So the extra milk sold economically justified the first system.

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A lves N ettoF. La raza Highlander se caracteriza por ser de baja estatura: Impala by Jens Hyldstrup Larsen. For the same reason sexed semen is not valuable to dairy B.