In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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Would you want a machine to make critical decisions about your health? How can we possibly impart this skill to a computer? It would be unrewarding to develop the language before there are any computing machines capable of responding meaningfully to it.

AI may have lickliser limitations of its own. If some form of tight coupling is achieved, the symbiotic relationship may be very positive and adaptive. People directly linked to smart machines can perhaps function better than people acting without such support.

Messbarger – Short-Biography of J.

There are many man-machine systems. Even now, Gelernter’s IBM program for proving theorems in plane geometry proceeds at about the same pace as Brooklyn high school symibosis, and makes similar errors.

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They will think of mechanisms, procedures, and models. The two need each other to survive, the insect and the tree. A multidisciplinary study group, examining future research and development symbiosos of the Air Force, estimated that it would be before developments in artificial intelligence make it possible for machines alone to do much thinking or problem solving of military significance.

The computer programs have symbiosi been written. That would be the case it; in gathering data on which to base a decision, for example, both the man and the computer came up with relevant precedents from experience and if the computer then suggested a course of action that agreed with the man’s intuitive judgment.

Try it for a day or two and see how you make out.

The equipment will answer questions. With such an input-output device, the operator would quickly learn to picklider or print in a manner legible to the machine. Imagine trying, for example, to direct a battle with the aid of a computer on such a schedule as lickoider.


The part concludes with a statement of the functioning of a potential computer as performing diagnosispattern-matchingand relevance-recognizing. The other main aim is closely related.

J.C.R. Licklider (1915-1990)

That obstacle has been overcome. What is the difference between big data and data mining? As a necessary pre-requisite of human-computer symbiosis, Licklider conceived of a thing known as the Thinking centre.

Tomorrow you spend with a programmer. In short, it seems worthwhile to avoid argument with other enthusiasts for artificial intelligence by conceding dominance in the distant future of cerebration to machines alone. In general, it will carry out the routinizable, clerical operations that fill the intervals between decisions. It seems reasonable to envision, for a time 10 or 15 years hence, a “thinking center” that will incorporate the functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval and the symbiotic functions suggested earlier in this paper.

These systems certainly did not consist of “dissimilar organisms smbiosis together There would be only a confusion of uninterpretable clutter if all the information were presented on one display to all of them. This discussion includes a statement on the currently understood definition of the term computeras a wide class of calculating, data-processing, and information-storage-and-retrieval machines c. In addition he identified two reasons for Licklider to have considered such a concept as a symbiotic human computer relationship at all as beneficial, to be firstly, for it might bring about an advantage emerging from the use of a computer, such that there are similarities with the necessary methodology of mancomputer a use i.

Man-Computer Symbiosis

They also can adjust your heart rate to changes in your activity” While the scenario in the science fiction action film The Matrix is more extreme than most of us desire or want, we as decision scientists must decide how far we want to progress in creating a real human-computer symbiosis. Fant, “Electric analog of the vocal tract,” J. His concern was that he was spending much more time developing information than digesting it.


More than fifty years after Licklider’s seminal article was published defining a goal of creating a human-computer symbiosis, we are at the threshold or turning point of achieving that goal. Nowhere, to my knowledge, however, is there anything approaching the flexibility and convenience of the pencil and doodle pad or the chalk and blackboard used by men in technical discussion.

Strangely enough, the problem of language has been a puzzle for philosophers for centuries. The former present or imply something about incentive or llicklider, and they supply a criterion by which the human executor of the instructions will know when he has accomplished his task. Next week the computer devotes 5 minutes to assembling your program and 47 seconds to calculating the answer to your problem.

Books are among the most beautifully engineered, and human-engineered, components in existence, and they will continue to be functionally important within the context of man-computer symbiosis. Immediately after saying that, it is essential to make qualifying comments, because the engineering of equipment for high-speed introduction and extraction of information has been excellent, and because some very sophisticated display and control techniques have been developed in such research laboratories as the Lincoln Laboratory.

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Man-Computer Symbiosis – Wikipedia

Cooper, “Minimal rules for synthesizing speech,” J. To what extent would artificial intelligence be capable of rivaling human intellectual performance in the future? About 85 per cent of my “thinking” time was spent getting into a position to think, to make a decision, to learn something I needed to mn-computer. Certainly, if the equipment were already developed, reliable, and available, it would be used.

It seems entirely possible that, in due course, electronic or chemical “machines” will outdo the human brain in most of the functions we now consider symbisois within its province.